28 July 2013

Nine Mile Prairie Visited

It was one of those rare days when nature truly shows her splendor. it was April 8th when I made a visit to Nine-mile prairie. The day was cool, slightly windy with fluffy cumulus clouds floating overhead. Upon getting out of the car, there was an immediate difference noted. Gone was the noise of civilization. It had been replaced by the subdued sounds of nature.

Heading south from the road the walk towards the ravine was accompanied by the musical song of the meadowlarks as they proclaimed to all who heard that this was their territory and was not to be taken away. Another avian species also making their presence known was the black-capped chickadee. The clear chick-a-dee-dee-dee of this little member of the titmice family directed ones attention to their antics as they busily searched for early season insects on the trees. Only a flash of white through the brush diverted attention from the birds. Was it deer? Quiet stalking to a lookout up a tree brought the answer. Five white-tailed deer could be seen trying to escape unnoticed. With the lack of cover on the grassy areas preventing this the whitetails bounded off to the south. Continuing up the draw and hiking along a small gently flowing stream, two large raptors were flushed from the decaying snag of a tree. As the great horned owls flew out of sight a look at the base of the tree revealed that these denizens of the night had been feeding on birds. Feather remains under the owls perch showed that possibly meadowlarks were one of the recent meals. With the trees of the draw giving way to the dull brown of the still dormant grasses, changing weather captured my attention. the white fluffy cumulus clouds had given way to dark stormy clouds coming in from the west. With the look of potential rain a hurried walk back to the car was begun. Nature wouldn't wait and soon a light drizzle began to fall. Lasting but a few moments the water droplets served to create one of the most beautiful sights in nature. It was a rainbow. The colored bands of this wonder arched across the entire eastern sky. With the dark backdrop of the storm clouds which had passed over this colorful phenomenon created the perfect setting for the end of a visit to an area which has surely been a part of this occurrence many times before.

May 1979. Babbling Brook, page 4. Newsletter of the Wachiska Audubon Society.

Helping Lincoln's Chimney Swifts

In considering the built environment of the city, there is an elegant resident little known to most residents. These feathered bugeaters course the day skies, being a neighbor and benefit to the people.

Chimney swifts dwell among us, and have for the generations that built a cityscape that has continuous change of building removal and rebuilding due to community improvement and revitalization. Many square blocks in Lincoln are now being changed by this process. About 80 square blocks are part of the rapidly changing north downtown area in Omaha.

Currently in Lincoln, this process is having a dramatic impact on swifts. My surveys of the Joint Antelope Authority project in east downtown indicate chimneys used by swifts in the project area. Several buildings scheduled to be removed have chimneys used these June weeks by swifts. Other homes, some likely suitable for swifts, have already been recently removed.

This dramatic loss if bird habitat needs to be mitigated. The situation has been a point of discussion with Lincoln and Omaha city officials, university staff, and the press.

As a result of several communications with the mayor's office in Lincoln, there is agreement on providing some towers. The type of structure and locations have not been decided. The mayor's office has also express interest in providing community fund monies to build towers if they are installed and maintained by the public. The same material has been sent to the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the general manager of the Lower Platte South NRD. No response has been received from either of these other [JAVA] project sponsors.

Providing swift towers and perhaps even creating a group of towers in a close area — a bugeater park — can be a grand community project. Help is needed to build towers and put them in place. The means for minor maintenance needs to be considered for the future. Perhaps Wachiska members would like to be involved in this exciting endeavor?

Efforts will be needed to convince planners and builders that chimneys should be included with new construction to ensure ongoing swift habitat. This facet could be especially useful when the three-block square locale at the East Downtown Community Park is built in the coming months. Proposed buildings on the west side include facilities which could include a bugeater home, especially useful at removing insect pests at a place where people gather to enjoy the scene.

Chimney swifts are an asset to the community. We need to help them. They help us. There birds are an important asset to a vibrant and distinct urban community.

Bring on the towers. Go bugeaters!

August 2005. Babbling Brook 14(8): 4. Newsletter of the Wachiska Audubon Society.

24 July 2013

Proposed WMA Name an Oxymoron

Having been at the proposed wma acquisition along the Niobrara River south of Nenzel, it is a very familiar place where more than twenty bird surveys have been done during the past decade. It was exciting to hear of its potential acquisition, an effort which can only be appreciated and strongly supported.

There is however, one point of strong disagreement, and that is the proposed name: Chat Canyon WMA.

The name was selected because "there is an unnamed canyon that comes into the valley on the property on the north side," according to a Nebraska Game and Parks Commission staff member, in response to my email inquiry.

Including chat in the name is appropriate because the species occurs there and the site was the locale for chat research.

It is the selection of canyon which is misleading and an oxymoron. Aerial photos and topographic maps indicate the canyon, but only a short section of its southern extent is on the tract. There is much more valley than canyon included among the property parcels.

Also, canyon refers to a land feature where chats would not be expected. Chats prefer the valley, almost to the exclusion of any upland such as the canyon, because these birds prefer deciduous vegetation to coniferous on the upland.

The Niobrara River valley is the most important chat habitat and to the primary extent of the area.

A more suitable name would be Chat Valley WMA. This alternative is preferential as it better reflects those features associated with the Yellow-breasted Chat.

The following elevation map indicates the approximate extent of the canyon included within the area proposed for acquisition. It measures about 15-1600 linear feet (indicated by the yellowish line), while the entire canyon is about 6600 feet in length. So, only about 25% of the canyon extent is within the parcel being considered.

This is another reason using canyon as a named features indicates a land feature which is only partially within the confines of the proposed wma, and more associated with the neighbor's property, perhaps leading people to think the canyon is publicly accessible.

Louisville Game Market - December 1863

Louisville, Dec. 30, 1863.

Game of nearly all kinds is abundant in our markets, and the trade in it is considerable. The following are our quotations:

Wholesale Prices.
Saddle Venison ...   15 c per lb.
Wild Geese ...   50 c each.
Wild Turkeys ...   75 c @ $1.25 each.
Brants ...   40 c each.
Wild Ducks Canvasback ... none in market.
  Mallard ... $2.50 per doz.
  Black ... $ 3 per doz.
  Redhead ... $2.50 per doz.
  Bluewing Teal ... $1.75 per doz.
Pheasants ...   $3.50 per doz.
Quails ...   $1.25 per doz.
Rabbits ...   $1.25 per doz.
Squirrels ...   $1 per doz.
Grouse ...   $4.00 per doz.
Retail Prices.
Saddle Venison ...   20 @ 25 c per lb.
Wild Geese ...   75 c each
Wild Turkeys ...   75 c @ $2 each.
Brants ...   50 @ 75 c each.
Wild Ducks Canvasback ... none in market.
  Mallard ... 50 @ 75 c per pair.
  Black ... $1 per pair.
  Redhead ... 75 c per pair.
  Bluewing Teal ... 50 @ 75 c per pair.
Grouse ...   $4.50 per doz.
Pheasants ...   $4.50 per doz.
Quails ...   $1.50 per doz.
Rabbits ...   $1.50 per doz.
Squirrels ...   $1.25 per doz.
December 31, 1863. Louisville Daily Democrat 20(143): 3.

This account of market prices is especially significant because it has both wholesale and retail prices. Most reports typically provide only the wholesale price. No similar reports were found after browsing through other nearby issues of this newspaper.

The "brants" listed here are likely the Snow Goose (or other species, although the Greater White-fronted Goose was often called the "speckle-bellied goose"), as they they would probably not at Louisville, along the Ohio River, be the Brant typical of the Atlantic coast. Grouse are designated as the Greater Prairie Chicken and the pheasant as the Ruffed Grouse. This far east, it is not likely that there would have been any Sharp-tailed Grouse, which with their long-tail, could represent pheasants.

These advertisements from the same newspaper, though a different issue, feature businesses which offered various sorts of game meat during the season.

February, 1856

November, 1863

Spring - A Poem from 1866

By Mrs. Clara H. Holmes.
Bright spring is here, and bashful March
His welcome opening, freely brings,
Of balmy winds from Southern lands,
And golden sunshine over us flings.
Beneath his kiss the starry eyes
Of blue forget-me-nots grow bright;
Though still beneath the last year's leaves
They hide their faces in affright;
And March at times so beautiful grows
He gives us back old winter's snows.
Fickle April, short-lived queen,
Will seize the abducted thrones,
And rule the earth in wayward mood,
With smiles and tears alternate shower;
Her emerald wreath thick set with gems,
Of purple, blue and gold combined,
On maple bough and willow lithe
Her gaily tasseled scepter find
The slender blades of meadow grass
Her footsteps kiss as on they pass.
The younger sister, smiling May,
The peach and apple buds will kiss,
And, waking from their sleeping, they
Will blush with life and bliss;
The honey bee, with happy hum,
Will woo the fair and fragrant flowers,
The blue bird and the robin come
With song to glorify the hours.
Then over serene May's early tomb
June's crimson roses bud and bloom.
April 4, 1866. Louisville Weekly Courier 20(1018): 1.

22 July 2013

How Indians Catch Eagles - Dacotah Territory

The son of a physician of Dubuque, who is now stationed at Fort Buford, Dacotah Territory, has written a long letter to his father giving some interesting items with regard to the Indians. An extract is appended:

The camp of Indians which we visited were chiefly engaged in catching war eagles, to make head dresses. They have a wooden lodge built in the camp, where the medicine ceremony necessary to catch is performed. No women is allowed to enter the lodge. They can come to the door and hand in provisions, but must not cross the threshold. You will not be allowed to spit on the floor, and must sit in a certain position of the lodge. You must enter and pass out at the north door. Wash and I were let in to see the ceremonies.

When a man goes to trap the eagles, he first goes to the medicine lodge, and is not allowed to go to sleep until midnight; he then eats a little and sleeps until the morning star rises. He, with his comrades, then go out to the traps without food or drink, and sit all day in the traps watching for the eagles. At night they return and enter the medicine lodge, and at midnight only do they eat and drink, and break their long fast of twenty-four hours' duration. They then are allowed to sleep until dawn, when they go out again, and stay four days, during which time they have food and drink four times and have never entered their own lodges or spoken to their friends, unless each as may be trapping with them. After the four days are up, they go back to their lodges, lean, and tired and sleepy, and sleep and eat and hunt deer until they are able to try another four days' trapping excursion. The eagles are brought alive into the camp, and after some ceremony the tails are pulled out, and they are let go to grow another tail for the next year. The traps consist of a hole in the ground covered with sticks and grass. A dead rabbit, fox or prairie chicken is tied to the top; the eagle swoops down and fasten his claws into it and tries to fly away with it, but the Indian (who is concealed in the hole) puts out his hand, catches the eagle by both legs, hauls him into the hole and ties him. He then fixes the top and waits for another eagle. We saw one man there who had caught six eagles in one day in this way.

They say if they do not fast and do their medicine properly, the eagle will get one of his claws loose and tear their hands. Some have had their hands ruined forever in this way. If a man does not catch an eagle during the day, he is obliged to moan and cry all night; we could hardly sleep with the noise made at night by the unsuccessful hunters.

Anonymous. June 14, 1872. How Indians catch eagles. Cuthbert Appeal 6(24): 1.

Lines to a Red-Bird - A Poem from 1873

Little, bird, so full of gladness,
Singing sweetly in yon tree,
Naught to thee is known of sadness,
Thou a wild-wood warbler free.
Night but brings thee rest and slumber,
Sitting by thy russet mate,
Pleasures only without number,
Crown thee, birdie, soon or late.
While at heart I wear the willow,
Pretty bird I envy thee;
Tears bedew my nightly pillow,
Soothing sleep comes not to me.
Had I like thee bright pinions,
Soon I'd fly across the sea,
seeking in those far dominions
Balm to make this anguish flee.
I would seek no more the dwelling
where we first together met;
Then my heart with joy was swelling,
Now it feels but vain regret.
Birdie, hush thy joyous singing!
Sick my heart turns, at thy lay!
Go, sweet bird! thy bright form winging,
To some happier home — away!
Inez. June 20, 1873. Cuthbert Appeal 7(25): 2. Written for the Cuthbert Appeal.

21 July 2013

Newspapers Reviewed During Evaluation of Wildbirds History

Numerous newspapers issued at communities across the continental United States have articles or notes with important details about the occurrence of wildbirds during historic times. After a multi-year effort to find pertinent articles with informative details, more than 770 newspapers are known to have information essential to any evaluation of wildbirds history associated with North American ornithology.

More than 3100 unique citations have provided more than 6400 distinct records for 285 species, with the first known newspaper mention of birds from A.D. 1675. The period of consideration is basically anything prior to 1885, though some records of particular interest are included for a few subsequent years. Every record is prior to 1890. Each item when added to a relational database includes a distinct citation, species identification, site of occurrence, date when observed using the best available detail and a summary of the given details which is given as a record notation.

These are the species most notably mentioned: Passenger Pigeon (953 records from 97 years, with the first known mention in A.D. 1675, with records for every year subsequent to 1826); Greater Prairie Chicken (446 records for 49 years, with the first record from 1790, and noted every year starting in 1850); Bald Eagle (395); Canada Goose (271); Northern Bobwhite (227); Wild Turkey (160); Snowy Owl (145); American Robin (143); Eastern Bluebird (133); Mallard (100); Wilson's Snipe (91); American Woodcock (89); and, Sandhill Crane (89). The most recent addition was the Purple Gallinule from Florida.

Some of the articles don't mention a species at a particular site at some time, but are included since they are an indicative presentation of bird history, perhaps being a distinct poem. Many of these articles have been transcribed and are available elsewhere on Wildbirds Broadcasting.

It is quite profound to ponder how records for each species could be evaluated within their own context. Consider how the historic records for the Passenger Pigeon could be mapped, based upon time and location details. And then the same information could be presented for each of the other species. It could and should be an essential aspect for the history of ornithology in northern America.

Each of these newspapers have articles, which were found, primarily, based upon a word or word-string search — preferably finding any of the words, or the exact phrase — using more than 100 different search terms. In a few rare instances, each page of a few issues of a newspaper has none-the-less been individually evaluated to determine if there were bird records; and in some instances this time consuming evaluation has been successful. It would, however, require a page-by-page review to find every available record conveyed on the pages of the nations newspapers. This would certainly require a massive amount of time!

This is the list of reviewed newspapers, as of mid-July, 2013, with additional papers from Canada not included in this list. Changes will occur as new sources are found since additional newspaper archival sites become available:

Alabama, U.S.A.
Birmingham Iron Age; Birmingham
Arizona, U.S.A.
Arizona Citizen; Tucson, Pima County
Arizona Sentinel; Yuma, Pima County
Tombstone Epitaph; Tombstone
Arkansas, U.S.A.
Arkansas Gazette; Little Rock
Fort Smith Elevator; Fort Smith
California, U.S.A.
California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences; San Francisco
Daily Alta California; San Francisco
Golden Era; San Francisco
Livermore Herald; Livermore, Alameda County
Los Angeles Herald; Los Angeles
Pacific Rural Press; San Francisco
Sacramento Record; Sacramento
Sacramento Record Union; Sacramento
Sacramento Union; Sacramento
Colorado, U.S.A.
Alamosa Journal; Alamosa, Alamosa County
Black Hawk Mining Journal; Black Hawk
Boulder County Courier; Boulder, Boulder County
Central City Evening Call; Central City
Central City Register; Central City, Gilpin County
Central City Register-Call; Central City, Gilpin County
Chaffee County Times; Buena Vista, Chaffee County
Colorado Banner; Boulder, Boulder County
Colorado Chieftain; Pueblo, Pueblo County
Colorado Springs Gazette and El Paso County News; Colorado Springs
Colorado Transcript; Golden, Jefferson County
Fort Collins Courier; Fort Collins
Fort Collins Standard; Fort Collins
Fort Morgan Times; Fort Morgan, Weld County
Georgetown Courier; Georgetown, Clear Creek County
Rocky Mountain News; Denver, Denver County
Silver Cliff Herald; Silver Cliff, Custer County
Connecticut, U.S.A.
American Mercury; Hartford
Bridgeport Evening Farmer; Bridgeport, Fairfield County
Connecticut Courant; Hartford
Connecticut Herald; New Haven
Connecticut Journal; New Haven
Connecticut Mirror; Hartford
East Haddam Journal; East Haddam, Middlesex County
Litchfield Monitor; Litchfield
Litchfield Republican; Litchfield
Middlesex Gazette; Middletown
New Haven Gazette; New Haven
New Haven Palladium; New Haven, New Haven County
New Milford Journal; New Milford, Litchfield County
Norwich Courier; Norwich
Southport Times; Southport, Fairfield County
State Temperance Journal; New London, New London County
Tolland County Press; Stafford Springs, Tolland County
Williamantic Journal; Willimantic, Whidham County
Delaware, U.S.A.
Delaware Advertiser and Farmers Journal; Wilmington, New Castle County, Delaware
Wilmingtonian and Delaware Advertiser; Wilmington, Delaware
District of Columbia, U.S.A.
National Intelligencer; Washington, District of Columbia
National Republican; Washington, District of Columbia
Washington Evening Critic; Washington, District of Columbia
Washington Globe; Washington, District of Columbia
Washington National Intelligencer; Washington, District of Columbia
Georgia, U.S.A.
Albany Patriot; Albany, Dougherty County
Americus Recorder; Americus, Sumter County
Athens Banner; Athens
Athens Banner-Watchman; Athens
Athens Georgian; Athens
Athens Messenger; Athens
Atlanta Constitution; Atlanta
Atlanta Herald; Atlanta
Atlanta Intelligencer; Atlanta
Atlanta Opinion; Atlanta
Atlanta Sun; Atlanta
Columbus Enquirer; Columbus
Columbus Enquirer-Sun; Columbus
Columbus Sun and Enquirer; Columbus
Cuthbert Appeal; Cuthbert, Randolph County
Dublin Post; Dublin
Farmer's Gazette; Sparta
Federal Union; Milledgeville, Baldwin County
Georgia Journal; Macon
Georgia Weekly Telegraph; Macon
Macon Daily Telegraph; Macon
Macon Telegraph and Messenger; Macon
Marietta Register; Mariette
Milledgeville Union and Recorder; Milledgeville, Baldwin County
Southern Banner; Athens
Southern Recorder; Milledgeville, Baldwin County
Southern Watchman; Athens
Southern Whig; Athens
Sumter Republican; Americus, Sumter County
Sunny South; Atlanta
The Country; Georgia
Thomasville Times; Thomasville, Thomas County
Weekly Columbus Enquirer; Columbus
Weekly Georgia Telegraph; Macon
Illinois, U.S.A.
Alton Courier; Alton, Madison County
Alton Observer; Alton
Alton Telegraph; Alton, Madison County
Cairo Bulletin; Cairo
Decatur Review; Decatur, Macon County
Edwardsville Intelligencer; Edwardsville
Freeport Bulletin; Freeport, Stephenson County
Hyde Park Herald; Hyde Park
Logansport Pharos Tribune; Logansport, Hamilton County
Monmouth Collegian; Monmouth College, Warren County
Mount Carmel Register; Mount Carmel
Olney Times; Olney, Richland County
Ottawa Free Trader; Ottawa, LaSalle County
Quincy Herald; Quincy
Quincy Journal; Quincy
Quincy Whig; Quincy
Quincy Whig and Republican; Quincy
Sterling Gazette; Sterling
Sterling Standard; Sterling, Whiteside County
Sycamore True Republican; Sycamore, De Kalb County
Indiana, U.S.A.
Bedford Star; Bedford, Lawrence County
Brownstown Banner; Brownstown
Cambridge City Tribune; Cambridge City, Wayne County
Connersville Examiner; Connersville, Fayette County
Connersville Times; Connersville, Fayette County
Crown Point Register; Crown Point
Danville Hendricks County Republican 1887; Danville, Hendricks County
Danville Hendricks County Union; Danville, Hendricks County
Dawsons Fort Wayne Tribune; Fort Wayne, Allen County
Delphi Times; Delphi, Carroll County
Elkhart Democratic Union; Elkhart, Elkhart County
Elkhart Monitor; Elkhart, Elkhart County
Elkhart Observer; Elkhart, Elkhart County
Fort Wayne Democrat; Fort Wayne
Fort Wayne Gazette; Fort Wayne, Allen County
Fort Wayne Sentinel; Fort Wayne, Allen County
Greencastle Banner; Greencastle, Putnam County
Indiana Press; Greencastle, Putnam County
Jasper Courier; Jasper, Jasper County
Jeffersonville Evening News; Jeffersonville, Clark County
Jeffersonville National Democrat; Jeffersonville, Clark County
Jeffersonville News; Jeffersonville, Clark County
Logansport Chronicle; Logansport
Logansport Journal; Logansport, Cass County
Logansport News; Logansport
Logansport Star; Logansport
Marshall County Democrat; Plymouth, Marshall County
Marshall County Republican; Plymouth, Marshall County
Martinsville Morgan County Gazette; Martinsville, Morgan County
New Albany Ledger; New Albany, Floyd County
New Albany Register; New Albany, Floyd County
New Albany Tribune; New Albany, Floyd County
Newport Hossier State; Newport, Vermillion County
Putnam Republican Banner; Greencastle, Putnam County
Worthington Gazette; Worthington, Green County
Iowa, U.S.A.
Ackley Enterprise; Ackley
Alden Times; Alden, Hardin County
Algona Upper Des Moines; Algona
Alton Review; Alton, Sioux County
Anamosa Eureka; Anamosa, Jones County
Anita Times; Anita, Cass County
Atlantic Telegraph; Atlantic
Burlington Hawk Eye; Burlington
Carroll Sentinel; Carroll, Carroll County
Cascade Pioneer; Cascade, Jones County
Cedar Falls Gazette; Cedar Falls, Black Hawk County
Cedar Rapids Gazette; Cedar Rapids
Cedar Rapids Times; Cedar Rapids
Cedar Valley Times; Cedar Rapids
Centerville Appanoose Times; Centerville, Appanoose County
Daily Iowa Capital; Des Moines
Davenport Gazette; Davenport
Decatur Republican; Decatur
Des Moines Republican; Des Moines
Dubuque Herald; Dubuque
Dubuque Times; Dubuque
Emmetsburg Palo Alto Pilot; Emmetsburg, Palo Alto County
Glenwood Opinion; Glenwood
Hawarden Independent; Calliope, Sioux County
Howarden Independent; East Orange, and Calliope, Sioux County
Iowa South West; Bedford
Iowa State Register; Des Moines
Iowa State Reporter; Waterloo, Black County
Jackson Sentinel; Maquoketa
Jefferson Bee; Jefferson
Jones County Liberal; Monticello, Jones County
Le Mars Iowa Liberal; Le Mars, Plymouth County
Le Mars Sentinel; Le Mars, Plymouth County
Malvern Leader; Malvern, Mills County
Marion Herald; Marion, Linn County
Monticello Express; Monticello, Jones County
Northern Vindicator; Estherville, Emmet County
Palo Alto Recorder; Emmetsburg, Palo Alto County
Postville Review; Postville, Allamakee County
Sioux County Herald; Orange City
Sioux County Independent; Calliope, Sioux County
Spencer Clay County News; Spencer
Spirit Lake Beacon; Spirit Lake, Dickinson County
Sumner Gazette; Sumner, Bremer County
Waterloo Courier; Waterloo, Black Hawk County
Wyoming Journal; Wyoming, Jones County
Kansas, U.S.A.
Abilene Reflector; Abilene, Dickinson County
Atchison Globe; Atchison, Atchison County
Belleville Telescope; Belleville, Republic County
Dodge City Times; Dodge City, Ford County
Iola Register; Iola
Lawrence Gazette; Lawrence, Douglas County
Lawrence Journal World; Lawrence
Lawrence Republican; Lawrence
Lawrence Western Home Journal 1874; Lawrence, Douglas County
Leavenworth Times; Leavenworth
Neosho Valley Register; Iola, Allen County
Oskaloosa Independent; Oskaloosa
Saline County Journal; Salina
Smoky Hill and Republican Union; Junction City, Geary County
Thomas County Cat; Colby, Thomas County
Weekly Kansas Chief; Troy
Western Kansas World; WeKeeney, Trego County
White Cloud Kansas Chief; White Cloud
Wichita City Eagle; Wichita, Sedgwick County
Kentucky, U.S.A.
Bourbon News; Paris, Bourbon County
Frankfort Roundabout; Frankfort
Hartford Herald; Hartford
Hickman Courier; Hickman, Fulton County
Interior Journal; Stanford
Kentucky Sentinel; Mount Sterling, Montgomery County
Kentucky Yeoman; Frankfort, Franklin County
Lebanon Post; Lebanon, Marion County
Louisville Courier; Louisville, Jefferson County
Louisville Democrat; Louisville
Louisville Express; Louisville
Louisville Times; Louisville
Semi-weekly Interior Journal; Stanford
Louisiana, U.S.A.
Colfax Chronicle; Colfax, Grant Parish
Louisiana Capitalian; Louisiana
Louisiana Democrat; Alexandria
New Orleans Crescent; New Orleans, Orleans Parish
Ouachita Telegraph; Monroe
People's Vindicator; Natchitoches
Maine, U.S.A.
Bangor Whig and Courier; Bangor
Bar Harbor Mount Desert Herald; Bar Harbor, Mount Desert Island, Knox County
Bath Independent; Bath, Sagadahoc County
Biddeford Journal; Biddeford, York County
Eastern Argus; Portland
Maryland, U.S.A.
Baltimore American and Commercial Advertiser; Baltimore
Baltimore Patriot; Baltimore
Denton Journal; Denton, Caroline County
Frederick News; Frederick
Hagerstown Herald and Torch Light; Hagerstown
Hagerstown Mail; Hagerstown
Hagerstown Torch Light and Public Advertiser; Hagerstown
Republican Star; Easton
Somerset Herald; Princess Anne
Torch Light; Hagerstown
Massachusetts, U.S.A.
Barnstable Patriot; Barnstable, Barnstable County
Barre Gazette; Barre
Barre Patriot; Barre
Boston Advertiser; Boston, Suffolk County
Boston Commercial Gazette; Boston, Suffolk County
Boston Evening-Post; Boston, Suffolk County
Boston Globe; Boston, Suffolk County
Boston Intelligencer; Boston, Suffolk County
Boston Messenger; Boston, Suffolk County
Boston News-Letter; Boston, Suffolk County
Boston Post Boy; Boston, Suffolk County
Boston Recorder; Boston, Suffolk County
Chatham Monitor; Chatham, Barnstable County
Columbian Centinel; Boston, Suffolk County
Dedham Village Register; Dedham
Haverhill Gazette; Haverhill
Independent Chronicle and Boston Patriot; Boston, Suffolk County
Litchburg Sentinel; Litchburg
Lowell Courier; Lowell
Lowell Journal and Courier; Lowell
Massachusetts Spy; Boston, Suffolk County
New Bedford Mercury; New Bedford
New-England Galaxy; Boston, Suffolk County
New-England Journal; Boston, Suffolk County
Newburyport Herald; Newburyport
Pittsfield Sun; Pittsfield
Plymouth Journal; Plymouth
Salem Gazette; Salem
Village Register; Dedham
Wachusett Star; Barre
Michigan, U.S.A.
Clare County Press; Clare, Clare County
Grand Traverse Herald; Traverse City, Grand Traverse County
Hillsdale Standard; Hillsdale
Kalamazoo Telegraph; Kalamazoo, Kalamazoo County
Marshall Democratic Expounder; Marshall
Otsego Union; Otsego, Allegan County
Pinckney Dispatch; Pinckney, Livingston County
St. Joseph Herald; Saint Joseph
Minnesota, U.S.A.
Albert Lea Freeborn County Standard; Albert Lea
Minnesota, U.S.A.
New Ulm Review; New Ulm, Brown County
Princeton Union; Princeton, Mille Lacs County
Red Wing Grange Advance; Red Wing, Goodhue County
Red Wing Sentinel; Red Wing, Goodhue County
Saint Paul Globe; Saint Paul
St. Cloud Democrat; St. Cloud, Stearns County
St. Cloud Journal; St. Cloud, Stearns County
St. Paul Globe; Saint Paul
Winona Record; Winona
Winona Republican; Winona
Missouri, U.S.A.
Andrew County Republican; Savannah
Bates County Record; Butler
Bolivar Free Press; Bolivar, Polk County
Boon's Lick Times; Fayette
Buffalo Reflex; Buffalo
Cape Girardeau Weekly Argus; Cape Girardeau
Charleston Courier; Charleston, Mississippi County
County Paper; Oregon
Doniphan Prospect; Doniphan
Fair Play; Saint Genevieve
Glasgow Times; Glasgow
Hannibal Clipper; Hannibal
Hannibal Journal; Hannibal, Marion County
Holt County Sentinel; Oregon, Holt County
Jackson Missouri Cash-Book; Jackson
Jefferson City Peoples Tribune; Jefferson City, Cole County
Jefferson City State Journal; Jefferson City
Kansas City Journal of Commerce; Kansas City
Kirksville Graphic; Kirksville, Adair County
Liberty Tribune; Liberty
Lincoln County Herald; Troy
Loyal Missourian; California, Moniteau County
Marshall Democrat; Marshall
Missouri Patriot; Springfield
Missouri Republican; St. Louis
Missouri State Times; Jefferson City
Moniteau Journal; California
Mount Vernon Fountain and Journal; Mt. Vernon, Lawrence County
Neosho Times; Neosho
Oregon County Paper; Oregon
Phelps County New Era; Rolla
Richmond Democrat; Richmond, Ray County
Rolla Weekly Herald; Rolla
Saline County Progress; Marshall
Sedalia Bazoo; Sedalia, Pettis County
Sedalia Democrat; Sedalia, Pettis County
Springfield Leader; Springfield, Christian County
St. Genevieve Fair Play; Saint Genevieve
St. Joseph Gazette; Saint Joseph, Buchanan County
St. Louis Missouri Republican; Saint Louis
Troy Herald; Troy, Lincoln County
Montana, U.S.A.
Montana Post; Virginia City
Yellowstone Journal [a.k.a. Daily Yellowstone Journal]; Miles City
Nebraska, U.S.A.
Columbus Journal; Columbus, Platte County
Huntsman's Echo; Wood River Center, Buffalo County
Kearney Hub; Kearney, Buffalo County
Nebraska Advertiser; Brownville, Nemaha County
Nebraska State Journal; Lincoln
North Nebraska Eagle; Dakota City
Omaha Arrow; Omaha, Douglas County
Omaha Bee; Omaha, Douglas County
Omaha Herald; Omaha, Douglas County
Omaha Nebraskian; Omaha, Douglas County
Omaha Republican; Omaha, Douglas County
Omaha Tribune; Omaha, Douglas County
Omaha World-Herald; Omaha, Douglas County
Red Cloud Chief; Red Cloud, Webster County
Valentine Reporter; Valentine, Cherry County
Nevada, U.S.A.;
Nevada State Journal; Reno, Washoe County
Reese River Reveille; Austin
Reno Evening Gazette; Reno, Washoe County
New Hampshire, U.S.A.
Farmer's Cabinet; Amherst
New Hampshire Gazette; Portsmouth
New Hampshire Patriot; Concord
New Hampshire Sentinel; Keene
New Hampshire Spy; Portsmouth
New-Hampshire Gazette and Historical Chronicle; Portsmouth
New-Hampshire Patriot; Concord
Portsmouth Journal of Literature and Politics; Portsmouth
New Jersey, U.S.A.
Burlington Advertiser; Burlington
Camden Democrat; Camden
Hammonton Item; Hammonton, Atlantic County
May's Landing Record; May's Landing, Atlantic County
New Brunswick Times; New Brunswick, Middlesex County
Rahway Advocate and Times; Rahway, Union County
Red Bank Register; Red Bank, Monmouth County
South-Jersey Republican; Hammonton, Atlantic County
Trenton Federalist; Trenton
Woodbridge Independent Hour; Woodbridge, Middlesex County
New York, U.S.A.
Adams Herald; Adams, Jefferson County
Albany Argus; Albany
Albany Centinel; Albany, Albany County
Albany Evening Journal; Albany, Albany County
Amenia Times; Amenia Times, Dutchess County
American Citizen; New York
Amsterdam Democrat and Recorder; Amsterdam
Auburn Bulletin; Auburn
Auburn Christian Advocate; Auburn
Auburn Journal; Auburn
Auburn News; Auburn
Auburn News and Democrat; Auburn
Baldwinsville Gazette; Baldwinsville, Onondago County
Batavia News; Batavia
Batavia Spirit of the Times; Batavia
Belmont Genesee Valley Post; Belmont, Allegany County
Binghamton Broome Republican; Binghamton
Bloomville Mirror; Bloomville, Delaware County
Brockport Republic; Brockport, Monroe County
Brooklyn Eagle; Brooklyn
Buffalo Courier; Buffalo
Buffalo Courier and Republic; Buffalo
Buffalo Express; Buffalo
Catskill Recorder; Catskill
Cayuga Chief; Auburn
Cayuga County Independent; Auburn
Chatham Courier; Chatham
Cherry Valley Gazette; Cherry Valley, Otsego County
Chittenango Herald; Chittenango, Madison County
Columbian [New York]; New York
Corning Journal; Corning
Cuba Evening Review; Cuba, Allegany County
Cuba True Patriot; Cuba
Dansville Advertiser; Dansville, Livingston County
DeRuyter New Era-Gleaner; DeRuyter, Madison County
Dunkirk Observer; Dunkirk, Chautauqua County
Erie County Independent; Buffalo and Hamburg, Erie County
Essex County Republican; Keeseville
Evening Gazette; Port Jervis
Fairport Herald; Fairport, Monroe County
Franklin Gazette; Malone
Fredonia Censor; Fredonia
Geneseo Democrat; Geneseo
Geneva Advertiser; Geneva
Geneva Courier; Geneva
Geneva Express; Geneva
Geneva Gazette; Geneva
Gloversville Intelligencer; Gloversville
Hudson Evening Register; Hudson
Hudson River Chronicle; Sing-Sing, Westchester County
Huntington Long Islander; Huntington, Suffolk County
Ithaca Journal; Ithaca
Jefferson County Journal; Adams
Kingston Freeman; Kingston, Ulster County
Little Falls Journal and Courier; Little Falls, Herkimer County
Little Falls Mohawk Courier; Little Falls, Herkimer County
Livingston Republican; Geneseo
Lockport Journal and Courier; Lockport, Niagara County
Lodi Freeman and Messenger; Lodi, Cattaraugus County
Long-Island Farmer; Jamaica
Lowville Journal and Republican; Lowville, Lewis County
Lyons Wayne Democratic Press; Lyons
Madison Observer; Morrisville, Madison County
Malone Frontier Palladium; Malone, Franklin County
Medina Register; Medina
Mexico Independent; Mexico
Morrisville Madison Observer; Morrisville
Mount Morris Union; Mount Morris, Livingston County
Mourning Courier and New-York Enquirer; New York
Naples Record; Naples, Ontario County
Neapolitan Record; Naples
New York Advertiser; New York
New York American for the Country; New York
New York Clipper; New York
New York Commercial Advertiser; New York
New York Evening Express; New York
New York Evening Mirror; New York
New York Evening Post; New York
New York Evening Telegram; New York
New York Gazette; New York
New York Graphic; New York
New York Herald; New York
New York Mercantile Advertiser; New York
New York Mercury; New York
New York New World; New York
New York Spectator; New York
New York Sun; New York
New York Telegram; New York
New York Times; New York
New York Tribune; New York
New York World; New York
New-York Journal; New York
New-York Spectator; New York
Newburgh News; Newburgh
Newtown Register; Newtown, Long Island
Niagara Falls Gazette; Niagara Falls, Niagara County
Ogdensburgh Journal; Ogdensburg
Ogdensburgh Sentinel; Ogdensburg
Oneida Morning Herald; Utica
Oneida Sachem; Oneida, Madison County
Oswego Commercial Times; Oswego
Oswego Palladium; Oswego, Oneida County
Oswego Press; Oswego, Oneida County
Oswego Times and Express; Oswego, Oneida County
Otsego Farmer; Cooperstown
Otsego Herald; Cooperstown
Pine Plains Register; Pine Plains
Plattsburgh Republican; Plattsburgh, Clinton County
Port Jervis Evening Gazette; Port Jervis
Poughkeepsie Daily Eagle; Poughkeepsie
Progressive Batavian; Batavia, Genesee County
Pulaski Democrat; Pulaski
Putnam County Standard; Brewster's [=Brewster], Putnam County
Putnam County Courier; Carmel, Putnam County
Rochester Republican; Rochester
Rochester Union and Advertiser; Rochester
Rockland County Journal; Nyack, Rockland County
Roman Citizen; Rome, Oneida County
Rome Sentinel; Rome, Oneida County
Sag Harbor Corrector; Sag-Harbor, Long Island, Suffolk County
Sag Harbor Express; Sag-Harbor, Long Island, Suffolk County
Salem Northern Post; Salem
Schoharie Union; Schoharie, Schoharie County
Skaneateles Courier and Republican; Skaneateles, Onondago County
Skaneateles Free Press; Skaneateles, Onondago County
South Side Signal; Babylon, Long Island, Suffolk County
Spirit of the Times; New York
St. Lawrence Republican; Ogdensburg
St. Lawrence Republican and Ogdensburg Weekly Journal; Ogdensburg
Stamford Mirror; Stamford, Delaware County
Syracuse Courier and Union; Syracuse, Onondaga County
Syracuse Evening Chronicle; Syracuse
Syracuse Journal; Syracuse
Syracuse Standard; Syracuse
Union Springs Advertiser; Union Springs, Cayuga County
Utica Gazette; Utica, Oneida County
Utica Herald; Utica, Oneida County
Utica Morning Herald and Daily Gazette; Utica, Oneida County
Utica Observer; Utica, Oneida County
Watertown Re-Union; Watertown, Jefferson County
Watertown Times; Watertown
Waterville Times; Waterville
Wellsville Alleghany County Reporter; Wellsville, Alleghany County
Western Argus; Lyons, Wayne County
Wyoming County Mirror; Warsaw
North Carolina, U.S.A.
Catawba Journal; Charlotte
Fayetteville Observer; Fayetteville
Highland Messenger; Asheville
Newbern Sentinel; New Bern
North Carolina Whig; Charlotte
Western Carolinian; Salisbury, Rowan County
North Dakota, U.S.A.;
Bismarck Tribune; Bismarck
Fort Rice Frontier Scout; Fort Rice, Morton County
Ohio, U.S.A.
Ashtabula Telegraph; Ashtabula, Ashtabula County
Belmont Chronicle; Saint Clairsville
Cincinnati Press; Cincinnati
Cleveland Leader; Cleveland
Coshocton Democrat; Coshocton
Dayton Empire; Dayton, Montgomery County
Elyria Constitution; Elyria, Lorain County
Elyria Courier; Elyria, Lorain County
Elyria Independent Democrat; Elyria, Lorain County
Fremont Journal; Fremont, Sandusky County
Gallipolis Journal; Gallipolis
Highland News; Hillsborough [Hillsboro], Highland County
Hillsboro News-Herald; Hillsboro, Hghland County
Hocking Sentinel; Logan
Holmes County Farmer; Millersburg, Holmes County
Holmes County Republican; Millersburg, Holmes County
Huron Reflector; Norwalk
McConnelsville Conservative; Salem
New Philadelphia Democrat; New Philadelphia, Tuscarawas County
Painesville Telegraph; Painesville, Lake County
Perrysburg Journal; Perrysburg
Piqua Miami Helmet; Piqua, Miami County
Portsmouth Times; Portsmouth
Springfield Globe-Republic; Springfield
Stark County Democrat; Canton
Tiffin Tribune; Tiffin, Hillsdale County
Urbana Union; Urbana
Vinton Record; McArthur, Vinton County
Western Reserve Chronicle; Warren, Trumbull County
Zanesville Courier; Zanesville, Muskingum County
Oklahoma, U.S.A.
Cherokee Advocate; Tahlequah
Indian Chieftain; Vinita, Craig County
Muskogee Indian Journal; Muskogee
Oregon, U.S.A.
Astorian; Astoria
Daily Astorian; Astoria
Marshfield Coast Mail; Marshfield
Morning Oregonian; Portland, Multnomah County
Willamette Farmer; Salem
Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
Altoona Tribune; Altoona, Blair County
Bloomsburg Columbian; Bloomsburg
Bloomsburg Democrat; Bloomsburg, Columbia County
Bristol Bucks County Gazette; Bristol, Bucks County
Carbon Advocate; Lehighton
Chester Times; Chester, Delaware County
Clearfield Democratic Banner; Clearfield
Columbia Democrat; Bloomsburg
Columbia Democrat and Bloomsburg General Advertiser; Bloomsburg
Columbian [Pennsylvania]; Bloomsburg
Columbian and Democrat; Bloomsburg
Daily Derrick; Oil City
Elk Advocate; Ridgway, Elk County
Elk County Advocate; Ridgway, Elk County
Evening Mirror; Altoona
Federal Gazette, and Philadelphia Evening Post; Philadelphia
Franklin Repository; Franklin County
General Advertiser and Political, Commercial,; Philadelphia
Gettysburg Complier; Gettysburg
Gettysburg Republican; Gettysburg
Gettysburg Republican Complier; Gettysburg
Gettysburg Star; Gettysburg
Gettysburg Star and Sentinel; Gettysburg
Greenville Advance; Greenville, Mercer County
Greenville Advance Argus; Greenville, Mercer County
Greenville Argus; Greenville, Mercer County
Greenville Shenango Valley Argus; Greenville, Mercer County
Huntingdon Journal; Huntingdon
Indiana Democrat; Indiana County
Indiana Messenger; Indiana County
Indiana Progress; Indiana County
Jeffersonian Republican; Stroudsburg, Monroe County
Journal and American; Huntingdon
Juniata Sentinel; Mifflintown
Kane Leader; Kane, McKean County
Kane Weekly Blade; Kane, McKean County
Keystone Courier; Connellsville
Lancaster Examiner and Herald; Lancaster, Lancaster County
Lancaster Intelligencer; Lancaster, Lancaster County
Lancaster Journal; Lancaster, Lancaster County
Lebanon News; Lebanon, Lebanon County
Lehigh Register; Allentown, Lehigh County
Middleburgh Post; Middleburgh, Snyder County
New Holland Clarion; New Holland
Pennsylvania Gazette; Philadelphia
Pennsylvania Mercury and Universal Advertiser; Philadelphia
Philadelphia Evening Bulletin; Philadelphia
Philadelphia Evening Telegraph; Philadelphia
Philadelphia Gazette of the United States; Philadelphia
Philadelphia Press; Philadelphia
Pittsburgh Morning Post; Pittsburgh
Poulson's American Advertiser; Philadelphia
Raftsman's Journal; Clearfield
Republican Compiler; Gettysburg
Shenango Valley Argus; Greenville, Mercer County
Smethport McKean Miner; Smethport, McKean County
Stroudsburg Jeffersonian; Stroudsburg, Monroe County
Tioga Eagle; Wellsboro
Titusville Morning Herald; Titusville
Union County Star and Lewisburg Chronicle; Lewisburg, Union County
Warren Ledger; Warren County
Waynesboro Village Record; Waynesboro
Wellsboro Agitator; Wellsboro, Tioga County
Williamsport Gazette and Bulletin; Williamsport
Williamsport Lycoming Gazette; Williamsport
Rhode Island, U.S.A.
Newport Journal; Newport
Newport News; Newport
Providence Gazette; Providence
Providence Patriot; Providence
Providence Post; Providence
Rhode Island American; Providence
Rhode Island Gazette; Newport
Rhode Island Republican; Newport
South Carolina, U.S.A.
Anderson Intelligencer; Anderson Court House
Carolina Watchman; Salisbury, Rowan County
Charleston News; Charleston
City Gazette and Daily Advertiser; Charleston
Columbia Phoenix; Columbia
Daily Phoenix; Columbia
Georgetown Enquirer; Georgetown, Georgetown County
Georgetown Union; Georgetown, Georgetown County
Keowee Courier; Walhalla
New South; Port Royal
Orangeburg Times and Democrat; Orangeburg
Pee Dee Times; Georgetown, Georgetown County
Sumter Watchman and Southron; Sumter, Sumter County
Sunbury American; Sunbury, Northumberland County
Sunbury American and Shamokin Journal; Sunbury, Northumberland County
Winyah Observer; Georgetown, Georgetown County
Winyaw Intelligencer; Georgetown, Georgetown County
Tennessee, U.S.A.
Bolivar Bulletin; Bolivar, Hardeman County
Columbia Herald; Columbia
Knoxville Chronicle; Knoxville
Memphis Appeal; Memphis
Milan Exchange; Milan, Gibson County
Nashville Union and American; Nashville
Texas, U.S.A.
Austin Intelligencer-Echo; Austin
Austin State Gazette; Austin
Brenham Banner; Brenham, Washington County
Clarksville Standard; Clarksville
Colorado Citizen; Columbus
Fort Worth Gazette; Fort Worth
Galveston Civilian; Galveston
Galveston Civilian and Gazette; Galveston
Galveston News; Galveston
Houston Mercury; Houston
Houston Telegraph and Texas Register; Houston
San Antonio Light; San Antonio, Bexar County
State Gazette; Austin
Waco Examiner; Waco
Utah, U.S.A.
Deseret News; Salt Lake City
Salt Lake Herald; Salt Lake City
Salt Lake Tribune; Salt Lake City
St. George Union; Saint George
Vermont, U.S.A.
Brattleboro Eagle; Brattleboro
Brattleboro Reporter; Brattleboro
Burlington Free Press; Burlington
Randolph Weekly Wanderer; Randolph, Orange County
Rutland County Herald; Rutland
Rutland Globe; Rutland
Rutland Herald; Rutland
St. Johnsbury Caledonian; St. Johnsbury, Caledonia County
Vermont Farmer; Saint Johnsbury
Vermont Gazette; Bennington
Vermont Phoenix; Brattleboro
Vermont Transcript; Saint Albans
Vermont Watchman; Montpelier
Virginia, U.S.A.
Alexandria Advertiser; Alexandria
Alexandria Gazette; Alexandria
American Beacon; Norfolk
Daily State Journal; Richmond
Harrisonburg Rockingham Register; Harrisonburg, Rockingham County
Native Virginian; Orange Court House
Petersburg Index and Appeal; Petersburg
Richmond Dispatch; Richmond
Richmond Enquirer; Richmond
Shenandoah Herald; Woodstock
Wisconsin, U.S.A.
Appleton Motor; Appleton, Outagamie County
Appleton Post Crescent; Appleton, Outagamie County
Beaver Dam Democrat; Beaver Dam
Daily Free Democrat; Milwaukee
Door County Advocate; Sturgeon Bay, Door County
Door County Expositor; Sturgeon Bay, Door County
Eau Claire Free Press; Eau Claire, Eau Claire County
Eau Claire News; Eau Claire, Eau Claire County
Evergreen City Times; Sheboygan
Forest Republican; Crandon
Grant County Herald; Lancaster, Grant County
Gravesville Calumet Republican; Gravesville, Calumet County
Green Bay Republican; Green Bay
Hudson North Star; Hudson, St. Croix County
Independent American; Platteville
Janesville Democrat; Janesville, Rock County
Janesville Democratic Standard; Janesville, Rock County
Janesville Gazette; Janesville, Rock County
Janesville Gazette and Free Press; Janesville, Rock County
Kenosha Democrat; Kenosha
Kenosha Telegraph; Kenosha
Madison Democrat; Madison
Madison Express; Madison, Dane County
Madison State Journal; Madison, Dane County
Madison Wisconsin Argus; Madison, Dane County
Madison Wisconsin Patriot; Madison, Dane County
Manitowoc Tribune; Manitowoc
Milwaukee Evening Courier; Milwaukee
Milwaukee Free Democrat; Milwaukee
Milwaukee News; Milwaukee
Milwaukee Sentinel; Milwaukee
Milwaukee Sentinel and Gazette; Milwaukee
Milwaukee Wisconsin; Milwaukee
Oshkosh Courier; Oshkosh, Winnebago County
Oshkosh Northwestern; Oshkosh
Prescott Transcript; Prescott, Pierce County
Racine Argus; Racine
Racine County Argus; Racine County
Racine Journal; Racine, Racine County
Racine Morning Advocate; Racine
Racine News; Racine
Richland County Observer; Richland Center, Richland County
Sauk County Standard; Baraboo, Sauk County
Semi-weekly Wisconsin; Milwaukee
Shawano County Herald; Shawano
Shawano County Journal; Shawano, Shawano County
Sparta Eagle; Sparta, Monroe County
State Journal; Madison
Stevens Point Journal; Stevens Point
Stevens Point Lumberman; Stevens Point, Portage County
Stevens Point Wisconsin Pinery; Stevens Point, Portage County
Sturgeon Bay Expositor Independent; Sturgeon Bay, Door County
Superior Chronicle; Superior, Douglas County
Watertown Democrat; Wattertown, Jefferson County
Waukesha County Democrat; Waukesha
Waukesha Freeman; Waukesha
Waukesha Plaindealer; Waukesha
Waupun Times; Waupun
Weekly Wisconsin; Milwaukee
Whitewater Register; Whitewater
Wisconsin Democrat; Green Bay
Wisconsin Free Democrat; Milwaukee
Wisconsin Patriot; Madison
Wisconsin State Journal; Madison
Wyoming, U.S.A.
Laramie Sentinel; Laramie

Most of these resources can be located by doing an internet search using the keywords "online historic newspapers" that provides a link to different websites which have archival copies of historic issues of newspapers which indicate a wonderful insight of bird history which cannot be ignored in any state.

There are, however, more records available than known by this initial effort, due to limitations of search options where text is not recognized, or where a site does not provide a search option, and in a primary manner, there is a requirement for payment to review articles. The number of records would easily increase substantially if there were not these sorts of limitations.

Newspaper number 800 was the Bellevue Gazette reviewed closely on August 29, 2013. It was issued at Bellevue City, Nebraska Territory, and one of its special features was regular poetry on the front page. How appropriate that it was a Nebraska newspaper.

The Whip-poor-will - A Poem from 1879

When apple-branches, flushed with bloom,
Load June's warm evenings with perfume,
And balmier grows each perfect day,
And fields are sweet with new-mown hay,
Then, minstrel loud, I hear thy note,
Up from the pasture thickets float —
Thine are the hours to love endeared
And summoned by thy accents weird,
What wild regrets — what tender pain,
Recalls my youthful dreams again,
As trailing down the shadowy years,
That old refrain loved memory hears —
The garish day inspires thee not;
But hid in some deep-shaded grot,
Thee, like a sad recluse, dost wait
The silver hours inviolate,
When every harsher sound is flown,
And groves and glens are thine alone,
Thou, when the rapt voluptuous night
Pants in the young moon's tender night,
And woods, and cliffs, and shimmering streams
Are splendid in her argent beams —
How thrills the lover's heart to hear
Thy loud staccato, liquid clear,
Whence comes thy iterated phrase;
That to the wondering ear conveys
Half-human sounds, yet cheats the sense
With vagueness of intelligence,
And, like a wandering voice of air
Haunts the dim fields, we know not where,
Henry M. Cornwell. August 21, 1879. Georgetown Times and Courier 14(23): 2. From: July, 1879; Scribner's Monthly 18(3): 416.

Reed-bird Shooting - A Poem from 1879

Three men and a bull-dog ugly,
Two guns, and a terrier lame;
They'd better stand out in the mind these,
And set themselves up for game!
But no! I see, by the cocking
Of that red-haired Paddy's eye,
He's been 'reeding' to much for you, Sir,
Any such game to try!
'Whist, Jamey, me boy! kape dark there,
And bould the big bull-dog in:
There's a bloody big cloud of rade-birds
That nade a peperin'!'
'Chip-bang!' speaks the single-barrel;
'Flip-booong!' roars the old 'Queen-Anne;'
There's a Paddy stretched out in the mud-hole,
A kicked-over, knocked down man!
The big bull-dog's eyes stick out,
And the terrier's barks begin;
The Paddy digs out of the deep mud,
And then the 'discoursin' comes in:
'Oh Jamey, ye precious young blag-guard,
I know ye're the divil's son,
How many fingers' load, thin,
Did ye put in this damned old gun?'
'How many fingers? Be jabers!
I nivir put in a one!
D'ye think I'd be afther ramming
Me fingers into the gun?'
'Well, give me the powdher, Jamey!'
'The powdher! as sure I'm born,
I put it all in yer musket,
As I had ne'er a powdher-horn!'
November 29, 1879. Rahway [N.J.] Weekly Advocate and Times 38(48): 1. Transcribed as printed, including word spelling.

The Blue-bird - A Poem from 1841

By David Paul Brown.
O, do you hear the Blue Bird,
The herald of the spring —
How cheerily he tunes his pipe,
How blithely plumes his wing.
He breathes the native note of praise
To the great source of Good,
The trees are vocal with his lays,
Instinct with gratitude.
He mounts upon the downy wing,
He cleaves the ambient air,
Inhales the balmy breath of spring,
And wishes the world to prayer.
The fertile Earth's at nature's voice,
Unlocks her precious store,
And mount and vale and plain rejoice,
And greet the genial hour.
The purling stream no longer bound,
In winter's icy chain,
Sparkles beneath the sunny ray,
And freely flows again.
Flows — as life flows, in infancy,
Pure, radiant and serene,
Through flowers and fields and fragrant groves,
That animate the scene.
Flows on, till winter checks its tide,
And robs it of its bloom.
Like death, that in our youthful pride
Consigns us to the tomb.
Yet man, for whom these notes are sung,
For whom these waters flow,
For whom this vernal wealth abounds
The monarch here below!
Man, only Man! with lofty brow,
With stubborn heart and knee,
Looms over this smiling universe,
Ungrateful, Lord, to thee.
The perils of the winter past —
Spring, like a blooming bride,
The summer's and the human's hope,
All magnify his pride!
There — there he stands — a rebel still,
A recent in that Power.
That murmurs in each limpid rill,
And breathes in every flower.
April 3, 1841. Winyah Observer 1(8): 4.

18 July 2013

Wildbird Survey at Saddle Creek Project Site

Prepared for the Public Works Department, City of Omaha
July 9, 2013
This City of Omaha document is presented here for informational and archival purposes.

Tree removal pending at the east Westlawn Cemetery site in association with the Saddle Creek CSO! project required that a survey be done in regards to any nesting birds, according to provisions of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act.

The following details are provided to the Public Works Department in accordance with an agreement to evaluate the indicated project site and determine if there were any bird nests present, or if there were other associated breeding bird concerns.

Bird Surveys

During each survey of three surveys, all birds heard and seen were noted, with details kept on the numbers seen. Particular attention was given to the songbirds present at this time of the breeding season which might be nesting (i.e., chickadees, cardinals, woodpeckers, etc.) or which may have dependent young with site fidelity.

The first survey on July 5th was a preliminary visit to Westlawn-Hillcrest cemetery, the creek on the eastern extent of this location, as well as the Bohemian Cemetery in order to evaluate overall species occurrence and to review site features. A subsequent visit occurred on July 7th, with particular attention given to birdly activity at the area where clearing would occur, and to further evaluate the species within the project site.

Early on the morning of July 9th, before the oppressive heat of a summer's day, a final survey was done to more closely evaluate the specific area where tree clearing would occur. During the visit, territorial behavior, presence of pairs, any carrying of food to a nest or dependent young was given a closer scrutiny. The area marked for tree clearing was the primary survey site.

It can also be noted that several previous bird surveys have been done at this site, which have been helpful in understanding the conditions relative to survey efforts. That information is not, however, included in this report since it is beyond the scope of the agreement.

Survey Results

There were no occupied nests or newly fledged young observed during any of the survey's within the indicated site where trees are to be removed.

There were fledged/juvenile birds present which were old enough for regular and sustained flight and with no confined fidelity to the tree area.

The following notes are derived from the 9 July survey, and are presented to indicate details regarding bird status and an absence of bird nests, eggs, or young at the project site.

  • American Robin: prevalent, but mostly adults and juveniles which gathered on the snags of suitable trees along the creek or to a much lesser extent, foraged among the woods
  • Baltimore Oriole: a sub-adult bird visited the tree-tops of the project site; there was no territorial activity noted in association with a female, any carrying of food to a nest, or caring for fledglings observed
  • Barn Swallow: foraging over the open field adjacent to the project site
  • Black-capped Chickadee: a group of four, which would, at this time suggest a family group of adults and juveniles were foraging among the snags of a cottonwood tree at the project site
  • Blue Jay: heard among the trees; based upon visits to other nearby green spaces, adults birds are currently feeding dependent juveniles, based on numerous site visits in recent days within the region, so their nesting is finished
  • Brown-headed Cowbird: transients
  • Chimney Swift: foraging above the place in the aerosphere
  • Downy Woodpecker: a transitory forager
  • Eastern Kingbird: a transitory visitor
  • European Starling: present but not pertinent according to list of species considered by the MBTA, as this bird is not a native species
  • House Wren: a male was territorial along the creek northward of the area demarked for clearing
  • Indigo Bunting: a male was noted singing on the north side of the site of interest on each of the three visits; the perch for this edge-specific species was not within the woods, and there were other similar perches to the west and northwest along the creek; during a prolonged period of observation, there was no female bird noted, the male did not show any behavior associated with feeding young and there was no nesting activity seen
  • Killdeer: not associated with the woods
  • Mourning Dove: transitory
  • Northern Cardinal: there was a territorial male just to the south of the project area; a pair was transitional through the project site on the morning of the 9th, but they did not convey any activity that would indicate there was a nest present, or that they were feeding dependent young
  • Northern Flicker: two obvious on the snags of trees along the creek; particular attention was given to determine if they was using any of the several tree cavities on the stately old cottonwoods within the area to be cleared; there was no such activity noted
  • Red-bellied Woodpecker: obvious on the snags of trees along the creek; particular attention was given to determine if they were using any of the available tree cavities; there was no such activity noted
  • Red-tailed Hawk: utilizing a tree snag to watch for huntable prey, as seen also on the 7th
  • Western Kingbird: two atop the snaggy cottonwood, and transitory as they had not been observed on either the 5th or 7th.

Based upon the three visits, comprising more than three hours of detailed observations, there were no nests or dependent young noted within the indicated project area. Details indicate that the clearing of trees will not destroy nests or eggs, and will therefore conform to the tenets of the MBTA.

The primary changes associated with this project, in regards to the variety of wildbirds present at the site, will be:

1) snag trees will be removed which are used as temporary roosts or foraging sites;
2) snag trees will be removed which currently have cavities which have more than likely have been used as nesting sites in the past;
3) trees will be removed which will constrict the currently contiguous corridor of vegetation along the creek, and degrade the natural value associated with any creek in an urban setting.

These are the findings as determined in accordance with the MBTA bird survey agreement. The indication is that pending tree clearing activities would conform with regulatory requirements by not destroying any nests, eggs or young birds.

The following are some additional perspectives regarding this project. During clearing activities, the trees could be taken down and removed in a sequential manner, where noise, etc., would move any birdlife present away from any hazards resulting from the tree clearing. Also, any trees removed should be hauled away, and not placed within, or left within the creek channel, as they would inhibit water flows which may result in obstructions that could lead to a degradation of water quality, potential bank erosion, etc. Wherever possible the older trees present, especially those with snag branches, should be retained, as they are regularly used as foraging and roost sites by a great many wildbirds.


These two graphics, not included in the submitted report, indicate the area where trees would be cleared.

Some of the trees to be removed from the project site. JEDucey photograph.

16 July 2013

Limb Snipping Along Happy Hollow

Following a unexpected and surprising evening shower, it was time to deal with an obvious situation on the east side of Memorial Park, in Omaha. With two suitable snipper tools in hand, there were limbs of some trees to trim along the Happy Hollow Trail.

The branches were encroaching upon the trailway, and with the rain, the moisture meant a declination which made the most problematic situations especially obvious as they hung over the way. The area of interest was from Underwood Avenue to Dodge Street.

Trees need care and attention, and it was their time, this evening. There was a particular purpose, with a specific intent.

Errant branches were removed from saplings. Unwanted invasive, i.e., trash trees were cut away within the woods adjacent to the trail.

Most importantly, overhanging limbs were trimmed to provide a clear route along the trail for walkers and bicyclists. This was a community service effort since Omaha Parks and Recreation staff have not given this situation any attention.

This was the second time this season for this sort of effort. Back in May, a slew of branches of a mulberry tree at the south end along the trail were specifically removed with an obvious intent. When wet, they hung only about five feet above the route. This was an problem that no one else would deal with. During that morning's effort, one regular walker along this way did express his thanks.

On Monday evening, July 15th, there was also gratitude expressed. One woman quipped that she had trees in her front yard needing trimming. My reply: "I don't ride my bicycle past there." She then said thanks for clearing the way for people using the trail, in so many words or less.

This effort involved arriving, trimming, throwing the debris into the adjacent woods, and leaving. This way, it may seem that nothing was done, though the scene may seem different to those who are attentive.

After this Monday evening outing, my shirt was dappled with multiple drops of water. My jeans have new stains from the mulberries which fell while cutting the limbs. However, the evening was nice and fresh, though there was no rainbow seen, which was some sort of expectation for the precipitation event with the raindrops and sunlight mixture.

It took three passes to and fro from the initial targets for removal, then onward to trim more limbs, and then to acquire another perspective and then to snip more unwanted tree branches. The trimming was done in a manner to work with the tree and not destroy its growth, but promote an alternative direction away from the right-of-way. Except for the trash trees where the intent is obliteration, as they are sprouting from what was left when they were initially snipped earlier this growing season.

During the outing the Mallards and Wood Ducks, and their young, were noticed along the creek. These days, the most effusive bird at this place is the Red-eyed Vireo, so specially expressive in the morning.

Now, when bicycling along, at least there won't be any branches whacking my head while riding along the way.

On this day, two hours were spent trimming trees along Happy Hollow Creek and picking up trash in the Carthage neighborhood. It was a good day for community service. Again. The results will be enjoyed tomorrow.

Fall Bonnet Fashion Includes Bird Feathers

One of the most distinguished bonnet is of steel blue velvet trimmed with loops and torsade of lighter blue. The crown is covered with black net, dotted with blue steel spangles. The brim flares upward all around, is faced with the darkest velvet, and against it rests a vine of blue steel leaves. At the back of the bonnet is a pink rose cluster. A second of deepest sea blue velvet and gros grain has a soft cap crown of velvet, with a high rolled coronet of gros grain; below the coronet is a roll of velvet tied behind in a tiny bow without ends. A spray of blue steel leaves in front is the only ornament in this compact and tasteful bonnet.

An olive brown bonnet of the darkest shade of velvet has around the crown a scarf of wide ribbon that is salmon-colored satin on one side and olive gros grain on the other; this laps behind, and has short square ends raveled as fringe. A wreath of tinted geranium leaves is in front, two long nodding cock's plumes on the left, and a cluster of pink and scarlet roses behind.

The prettiest bonnet is of chestnut brown velvet, with brown satin crown, and velvet brim turned straight up in front. Three pink and yellow roses are directly in front, with some upturned sprays of white velvet forget-me-nots. Still above this are pink and white heron feathers, while behind is a long looped bow of the velvet and satin.

A black velvet bonnet is made youthful-looking by a scarf of wide double-faced ribbon — poncean satin on one side and black gros grain on the other — being tied around the crown; a red and black bird, with head down and spread wings, is on soft pleats of the crown in front. Another black velvet has pink and black ribbon, with dangling oats of jet all around the crown.

A mouse-colored velvet has a crown of pearl gray gros grain; the brim is pointed high in front, and supports a wreath of shaded scarlet geraniums. A scoop bonnet of myrtle green velvet has the crown formed of the green satin side of a double-faced scarf ribbon. A second of green velvet has the brim covered with leaves that are beaded with green; white heron's plume and three large full rose-beds, scarlet, pink and salmon, are the trimmings.

August 22, 1874. Fall bonnets.Putnam County Courier 33(16): 1.

Geese and Ducks Strike Telegraph Wire

A wild-goose chase. — A Cold Spring correspondent of the N.Y. Tribune, Oct. 17, says that the wire of the New York and Erie Telegraph that crosses the river from the summit of Breakneck to Butterhill, was broken on Sunday last by a flock of wild geese, one of which was so much injured that it was captured. A flock of ducks flew against the same wire a few days previous, two of which were killed by the concussion.

October 31, 1849. Putnam County Courier 8(21): 3.

Plump Woodcock Suicides at Post-Office Wire

A plump woodcock flew against the telegraph wire in front of our post office, on Tuesday morning last, and suicided.

July 17, 1875. Around home. Rockland County Journal 25: 5. Issued at Nyack, N.Y.

14 July 2013

Bicycle Rack Lacking at World-Herald Building

On July 11th, after bicycling about the special places associated with Carter Lake, and having noting something newsworthy, the route went south to downtown Omaha, specifically to the Omaha World-Herald building to speak with a reporter.

Since there was no bicycle rack available so my ride was attached to an available handrail at the main entrance.

Later in the morning, an email inquiry was sent to company administrators — especially two top officials as noted by the newspaper's contact information — in regards to there being no place to securely place a bicycle while visiting the building.

The reply was that there was a bike rack at some place nearby the entrance.

Their response didn't work because at the place where there was supposed to be a bicycle rack, there was nothing of the sort, near the vehicle entrance west of the main entry at the south side of the building.

On the morning of my visit, there was no bicycle rack anywhere near the public entrance. It my email response, this was the primary response, with a particular request asking where the rack was located.

Another email response was received from another person at the company. The only rack available would involve asking the security officer to provide access to a "secure" bicycle rack within the confines of the parking garage.

If that was not suitable, then there were racks available at the Union Pacific Center to the west, a half-block or so westward. The racks are within the southern confines of the buildings' plaza.

Why is it that when riding a bicycle to the Omaha World-Herald building, that a bicycle has to be secured at a distance or require some approval for placement within the regulated confines of the building being visited.?

Anyone visiting without knowing these details — and that would include most bicyclists — would be confused and not know where the anchor their ride. Anyone just arriving at the place would not be aware of the requirements and be left searching for a secure place to place their bicycle.

The Omaha World-Herald company appears to be indifferent in promoting green transportation, especially via bicycle, based upon the lack of a rack.

Why can't they provide a public bicycle rack? One prominently placed near their building entrance would obviously be useful. It would convey a corporate interest, as well as be supportive of an alternative means of transportation which is pervasive among some people of the community.

The complete lack of a rack is completely wrong in regards to community concerns and involvement.

The newspaper writes about other green efforts, yet does not itself do anything to conform to the necessities to be a green company. This includes their disregard to bird strikes at windows associated with the company buildings in downtown Omaha.

There could be some changes made to easily present a more attentive perspective in regards to getting actively involved. This newspaper company can do more than just report upon what other's do. This could start with having a readily available bicycle rack.

What the American Eagle Thinks of Dacotah

The American Eagle has flown to the west,
Leaving the land that she loveth the best,
Has gone to Dacotah, to dwell in the wild,
A land on which God in his mercy ne'er smiled,
Which Missouri flows through with its river of mud,
Where no flowers ever blossom or trees ever bud,
Save the cottonwood mean, or the willow so tough,
If you've split them or burnt them you know well enough,
And there she has perched on a wild desert cliff,
To take of the air that's around her a sniff
She hears an old wolf that comes out of his den,
He switches his tail, and then burrows again,
She sees a small prairie-dog come forth to bark,
Then retire once more to his hermitage dark,
Then she spies in a thicket of cottonwood brush,
An elk through the wilderness go with a rush,
Then a buffalo herd canter by with a roar,
Shake their tails and their horns till she sees them no more,
Than an Indian at last in his skins and his paint,
Gives the air that's around her a repulsive taint,
A flock of lean buzzards wheel off in the blue,
To add to the desolate cast of the view.
The Earth is bare wherever she looks,
She sees neither fountains no clear water brooks,
Arid plains like Sahara where simoons have swept,
And hills on whose summits no dew ever wept,
"If this is the land of Dacotah," she cries,
"I pity the 1st U.S. V. at Fort Rice."
Then plumes her gay wings, and soars far from the scene,
To lands more delightful and skies more serene.
Anonymous; Captain E.G. Adams, editor. June 22, 1865. Fort Rice Frontier Scout 1(2): 2. An annotation printed in the column beneath this poetic expression said that "Every article in this paper is original, and sees the light for the first time."

12 July 2013

Wood Duck Extravaganza at Carter Lake

It was a summer morning when the temperature was not oppressive, the humidity was slight and an intention boiled over when the extravaganza of Wood Ducks were noted about Carter Lake. As the sun touched the horizon, a departure was made from the hills of old Dundee, with an easterly direction accomplished a bicycle pedal at a time, with some appreciated coasting places.

The survey of the morning started at the southeast portion of the lake about Bird Isle, and continued along the way around the lake and its aquatic places.

The results were stupendous, with the largest count of Wood Ducks for this habitat ever recorded within the past decade.

A count of 111 Wood Ducks is nearly twenty more than any recent, previous count. The tally was obviously a result of the many birds being raised this season. At the lake, there are different groups of these ducks, some small and special, with others older and nearly ready to survive on their own. Each of them were a result of the successful breeding in the tree cavities associated with the lakes' habitat.

It was exciting to watch some small ducklings scitter across the water-lily pads on the eastern side of the lake. Mother duck swan along, while her young knew what to look for among the habitat. Other observations along the way, provided these additional perspectives:

  • a female and five small ducklings;
  • two females accompanying 11 young;
  • a female attentive to 11 ducklings
  • two females with nine young;
  • a female with six young;
  • a female with 11 ducklings; and,
  • a female with four ducklings.

The overall count from the morning survey surpassed a previous high count from mid-June 2012. Various recent counts during July were significant at the time, but with many fewer Wood Ducks observed.

There was only one intrusive motor-boat on the lake, with was really insignificant. Most of the family bunches were in the eastern third of the lake, or near to the shore, with only one family group in the western section of the lake, where boat traffic occurs to a greater extent.

There were also a bunch of young Mallard ducks, with at least four family groups seen.

It was a good year for the colorful and expressive ducks of Carter Lake, and the offspring raised upon its adjacent park lands.

Other notables during the morning visit were the loitering group of snow geese and the gathering of Purple Martins about their apartment complex.

Purple Martins at their west residences.

Group of snow geese at Horseshoe Pool, Levi Carter Park.

In the background of this picture, there is also a Great Blue Heron.

Natural Wildlife Area Designated at Levi Carter Park

Signs designating a natural wildlife area have been placed at a small tract of land within Levi Carter Park. The site is at the northwest corner of the park, and includes a pond, woods and some relict grasslands along the railroad track.

Three signs were placed on the same posts where other signage indicates that off-road vehicles are not allowed. The new signs — installed in the past few days — say: Natural Wildlife Area Do Not Disturb.

For bird survey purposes, this site will now be known as the Northwest Pond Natural Wildlife Area. The area was first visited at the end of May, 2011, and has been especially surveyed during 2012-13. There have been 68 different bird species noted at this wild haven.

During the most recent visit, a mattress and a tire were pulled from among the trees and placed near the curb for proper disposal. During a couple of visits, unwanted invasive cedar trees have been cut or pulled to prevent their becoming established.

The portion of the area along the adjacent streets will continue to be mowed. With the placement of large tree trunks to prevent vehicle access, the formerly disturbed trailways are slowly reverting to a vegetated condition.

A request for this designation was made at the June meeting of the Omaha Parks advisory board.

08 July 2013

Birding Parks in Western Omaha

Being ensconced among the western portion of urban Omaha there were opportunities to see what birds are about now towards the end of the breeding season. Within the past week (July 5th to 8th), the following park spaces have been visited during the morning to determine which sorts of species are about during this summer.

Upon the first day, with other things to consider, there was a thorough survey done at Westlawn-Hillcrest Cemetery, and especially about the creek on its eastern side, and then about the Bohemian Cemetery. The latter place is now celebrating the 130th anniversary of its origin. The celebration could include a recognition for the green-space still extant in the otherwise completely urban Omaha setting. It has a fine line of trees along the fence of its western boundary, and there is a bit of creek in the southwest corner.

On the next morning, Trendwood Park was visited, only because the place has a creek and associated woods. Mostly the place is mown lawn, or a ball-field. Notably, the bridge across the waterway, on its north side, has a bunch of tree limbs which are a blockage so similar to situations in eastern Omaha parks.

The bird variety here was not especially exciting, but anytime there are some birds, it is a good time to be looking, and doing the documentation thing.

During the weekend, a morning's visit at Hummel Park was notable, but situations were problematic due to ongoing degradation of the north woods.

The next park surveyed was N.P. Dodge Park. There was a quite nice variety of species seen. Especially enjoyed were a couple of Lark Sparrows. There was no hiking trail to the river, and it was too brushy and hot to force a way, so the intended route was diverted southward.

During the morning of July 8th, the forecast conveyed there would be slight winds, so by 6 a.m., the pre-planned survey route was underway. The places visited, in order of occurrence, were:

Towl Park with its sinuous lagoon; there are underwater pumps here, which apparently mix the water, probably to sustain a suitable setting for catchable fish.
Rockbrook Park; two parcels with the northern extent along an unnamed creek; the highlight was a mama Wild Turkey with two poults; if the City of Omaha cannot repair the bridge over the creek in the northern tract, it should be removed; the creek had a slight flow during the visit.
Armbrust Park; this so-called park is basically a wooded area along an unnamed creek with a slight flow; the parcel south of Grover Street can be readily hiked, but on the northern side of this place, keep to the east of the creek, for a short distance. The excitement of the morning was the expressiveness of the Blue Jay and other bird life because of a Cooper's Hawk occurrence.
Meadow Lane Park with its linear extent a jaunt south of West Dodge Road; the most expressive thing at this public space were the tennis-players and the graffiti spewed on the walls of the culvert beneath 117th street. There was no time taken to get a closer look at this vandalism.

The last place given some birdly attention was Miller Park, in north Omaha. It deserved a visit so Monday morning was appropriate. The two groups of different-aged Wood Duck young and an expressive Green Heron made it especially notable.

During the past couple of weeks a lot of parks have been visited, despite the tribulations of rising before the sun, and being out the door within minutes. There would be no indication of the birds at these places if there was no go during the early morning of these notably hot days of summer.

The value shown is the number observed at the designated area. There were fifty-five species present during the bird surveys at these Omaha parks.

Common Name Ponca Creek, Hummel Park North Hills, Hummel Park N.P. Dodge Park Miller Park Meadowlane Park Towl Park Rockbrook Park Armbrust Park Trendwood Park
Canada Goose - - - - 29 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Wood Duck - - - - - - 16 - - - - - - - - - -
Wild Turkey - - - - 1 - - - - - - 3 - - - -
Green Heron - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - -
Turkey Vulture - - 1 2 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Cooper's Hawk - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - -
Red-tailed Hawk 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Killdeer - - - - 4 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Rock Pigeon - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - -
Mourning Dove - - - - 6 4 2 3 4 - - 2
Yellow-billed Cuckoo 2 - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Chimney Swift - - - - - - 4 - - 23 - - - - - -
Ruby-throated Hummingbird - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Red-headed Woodpecker - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Red-bellied Woodpecker 1 - - - - - - 1 1 1 1 1
Downy Woodpecker 2 - - 1 1 - - 1 1 - - 1
Northern Flicker 2 - - 2 1 - - 1 1 - - - -
Eastern Wood-Pewee 2 4 1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Eastern Phoebe - - 1 - - - - - - 1 - - - - - -
Great Crested Flycatcher 1 1 2 - - - - 1 - - - - - -
Western Kingbird - - - - - - 1 - - 2 - - - - - -
Eastern Kingbird - - - - 2 1 - - 1 - - - - 1
Warbling Vireo - - - - 1 2 - - 1 - - - - - -
Red-eyed Vireo 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - 1 - -
Blue Jay 1 3 2 1 3 1 5 1 1
American Crow - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 2
Purple Martin - - - - 5 - - - - - - 1 - - - -
Bank Swallow - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Cliff Swallow - - - - 5 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Barn Swallow - - - - 6 11 - - 1 - - - - 5
Black-capped Chickadee 2 3 4 2 2 3 2 2 3
Tufted Titmouse 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
White-breasted Nuthatch 5 4 2 1 1 2 3 1 - -
Carolina Wren - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
House Wren 8 6 12 - - 1 1 1 1 - -
Eastern Bluebird - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
American Robin 1 2 11 30 12 12 8 9 4
Gray Catbird 2 - - 1 - - - - 4 - - - - 2
Brown Thrasher - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
European Starling - - - - 35 28 - - 3 5 - - 9
Yellow Warbler - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Scarlet Tanager - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Chipping Sparrow - - 3 2 3 - - - - 1 - - - -
Lark Sparrow - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Northern Cardinal 3 6 2 1 3 4 2 1 2
Indigo Bunting 2 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Dickcissel - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Red-winged Blackbird - - - - - - - - - - 6 - - - - - -
Common Grackle - - - - 12 12 2 12 3 - - 3
Brown-headed Cowbird - - - - 6 1 - - 4 1 - - - -
Orchard Oriole - - - - 3 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Baltimore Oriole - - - - 3 2 - - 2 - - - - 1
House Finch - - - - - - 2 - - - - 3 - - 1
American Goldfinch - - 4 2 2 - - - - - - - - - -
House Sparrow - - - - 5 6 - - 6 4 - - 3

There could be additional interesting details indicated by a further analysis of these records, especially regarding numbers, overall distribution, general status including any obvious differences, and more importantly, new occurrences. Suffice it to say, the particular highlights were the Lark Sparrows breeding at N.P. Dodge Park, and the Green Heron at Miller Park.